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Chhoti Chhoti Raatein (HD) - Tum Bin

 


Chhoti Chhoti Raatein
Movie: Tum Bin
Director: Anubhav Sinha
Cast: Himanshu, Priyanshu Chatterji, Rakesh Bapat, Sandali Sinha
Music Director: Nikhil Vinay
Writing credits:
Faaiz Anwar   (lyrics)
Shashank Dabral   (screenplay)
Anubhav Sinha   (dialogue)
Producer: Krishan Kumar , Bhushan Kumar
Release Date:13 July 2001 (India)



Tum Bin Jiya Jaye Kaise - Tum Bin




Tum Bin Jiya Jaye Kaise
Movie: Tum Bin
Director: Anubhav Sinha
Cast: Himanshu, Priyanshu Chatterji, Rakesh Bapat, Sandali Sinha
Music Director: Nikhil Vinay
Writing credits:
Faaiz Anwar   (lyrics)
Shashank Dabral   (screenplay)
Anubhav Sinha   (dialogue)
Producer: Krishan Kumar , Bhushan Kumar
Release Date:13 July 2001 (India)







Koi Faryaad (HD) - Tum Bin



Koi Faryaad
Movie: Tum Bin
Director: Anubhav Sinha
Cast: Himanshu, Priyanshu Chatterji, Rakesh Bapat, Sandali Sinha
Music Director: Nikhil Vinay
Writing credits:
Faaiz Anwar   (lyrics)
Shashank Dabral   (screenplay)
Anubhav Sinha   (dialogue)
Producer: Krishan Kumar , Bhushan Kumar
Release Date:13 July 2001 (India)








Keh Raha Hai - Baabul



Keh Raha Hai Song HD With English SubTitles
Singers : Sonu Nigam And Shreya Ghoshal
Lyrics : Sameer
Music Director : Aadesh Shrivastav
Actors :Salman Khan, Rani Mukherjee, Amitabh Bachchan, John Abraham, Hema Malini And More...
Director : Ravi Chopra
Movie : Baabul
Year : 2006




Salaam Aaya song - Veer



Salaam Aaya song
Movie: Veer
Starring: Salman Khan, Mithun Chakraborty, Jackie Shroff, Sohail Khan, Zarine Khan, Aryan Vaid, Puru Raaj Kumar, Bharat Dhabholkar, Shahbaaz Khan, Rajesh Vivek, Yogesh Suri, Ashok Samarth, Vinay Apte, Neena Gupta, Lisa Lazarus, Tim Laurence, William Chubb, Gita Soto
Lyrics: Gulzar

Rabba Full Video Song (Main Aur Mrs Khanna) (HQ)



Rabba Full Video Song (Main Aur Mrs Khanna) (HQ)
Singer: Rahat Fateh Ali Khan
movie: Main Aurr Mrs. Khanna
starring Salman Khan, Kareena Kapoor, Sohail Khan and many others in the lead roles.

Mein Tenu Samjhawan Ki - Virsa



Mein Tenu Samjhawan Ki
Singer: Rahat Fateh Ali Khan
Film : Virsa

Tum Jo Aaye | Complete Video Song 'HD' Rahat Fateh Ali Khan | Once Upon a time in Mumbai 2010



Tum jo Aaye...
Video song from the movie ' Once upon a time in mumbai ' 
starring Ajay Devgan Kangana Renavat Emraan Hashmi and Prachi desai
Singers: Rahet Fateh Ali Khan and Tulsi Kumar

Domain Name System (DNS)


The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system built on a distributed database for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. Most importantly, it translates domain names meaningful to humans into the numerical identifiers associated with networking equipment for the purpose of locating and addressing these devices worldwide.

An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses. For example, the domain name http://www.example.com/ translates to the addresses 192.0.32.10 (IPv4) and 2620:0:2d0:200::10 (IPv6).

The Domain Name System makes it possible to assign domain names to groups of Internet resources and users in a meaningful way, independent of each entity's physical location. Because of this, World Wide Web (WWW) hyperlinks and Internet contact information can remain consistent and constant even if the current Internet routing arrangements change or the participant uses a mobile device. Internet domain names are easier to remember than IP addresses such as 208.77.188.166 (IPv4) or 2001:db8:1f70::999:de8:7648:6e8 (IPv6). Users take advantage of this when they recite meaningful Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and e-mail addresses without having to know how the computer actually locates them.

The Domain Name System distributes the responsibility of assigning domain names and mapping those names to IP addresses by designating authoritative name servers for each domain. Authoritative name servers are assigned to be responsible for their particular domains, and in turn can assign other authoritative name servers for their sub-domains. This mechanism has made the DNS distributed and fault tolerant and has helped avoid the need for a single central register to be continually consulted and updated.

In general, the Domain Name System also stores other types of information, such as the list of mail servers that accept email for a given Internet domain. By providing a worldwide, distributed keyword-based redirection service, the Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of the Internet.
Other identifiers such as RFID tags, UPC codes, International characters in email addresses and host names, and a variety of other identifiers could all potentially utilize DNS.

The Domain Name System also defines the technical underpinnings of the functionality of this database service. For this purpose it defines the DNS protocol, a detailed specification of the data structures and communication exchanges used in DNS, as part of the Internet Protocol Suite.

Overview:

The Internet maintains two principal namespaces, the domain name hierarchy and the Internet Protocol (IP) address system. The Domain Name System maintains the domain namespace and provides translation services between these two namespaces. Internet name servers and a communications protocol implement the Domain Name System. A DNS name server is a server that stores the DNS records, such as address (A) records, name server (NS) records, and mail exchanger (MX) records for a domain name and responds with answers to queries against its database.

History:

The practice of using a name as a humanly more meaningful abstraction of a host's numerical address on the network dates back to the ARPANET era. Before the DNS was invented in 1983, each computer on the network retrieved a file called HOSTS.TXT from a computer at SRI (now SRI International). The HOSTS.TXT file mapped names to numerical addresses. A hosts file still exists on most modern operating systems, either by default or through explicit configuration. Many operating systems use name resolution logic that allows the administrator to configure selection priorities for available name resolution methods.

The rapid growth of the network required a scalable system that recorded a change in a host's address in one place only. Other hosts would learn about the change dynamically through a notification system, thus completing a globally accessible network of all hosts' names and their associated IP addresses.

At the request of Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris invented the Domain Name System in 1983 and wrote the first implementation. Several additional Request for Comments have proposed various extensions to the core DNS protocols.

In 1984, four Berkeley students—Douglas Terry, Mark Painter, David Riggle and Songnian Zhou—wrote the first UNIX implementation, called The Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) Server. In 1985, Kevin Dunlap of DEC significantly re-wrote the DNS implementation. Mike Karels, Phil Almquist and Paul Vixie have maintained BIND since then. BIND was ported to the Windows NT platform in the early 1990s.

BIND was widely distributed, especially on Unix systems, and is the dominant DNS software in use on the Internet. With the heavy use and resulting scrutiny of its open-source code, as well as increasingly more sophisticated attack methods, many security flaws were discovered in BIND. This contributed to the development of a number of alternative name server and resolver programs. BIND itself was re-written from scratch in version 9, which has a security record comparable to other modern Internet software.

The DNS protocol was developed and defined in the early 1980s and published by the Internet Engineering Task Force.

Domain name space:

The domain name space consists of a tree of domain names. Each node or leaf in the tree has zero or more resource records, which hold information associated with the domain name. The tree sub-divides into zones beginning at the root zone. A DNS zone consists of a collection of connected nodes authoritatively served by an authoritative nameserver. (A single nameserver can host several zones.)

Administrative responsibility over any zone may be divided, thereby creating additional zones. Authority is said to be delegated for a portion of the old space, usually in form of sub-domains, to another nameserver and administrative entity. The old zone ceases to be authoritative for the new zone.

Domain name formulation:

A domain name consists of one or more parts, technically called labels, that are conventionally concatenated, and delimited by dots, such as example.com.
  • The right-most label conveys the top-level domain; for example, the domain name http://www.example.com/ belongs to the top-level domain com.
  • The hierarchy of domains descends from right to left; each label to the left specifies a subdivision, or subdomain of the domain to the right. For example: the label example specifies a subdomain of the com domain, and www is a sub domain of example.com. This tree of subdivisions may consist of 127 levels.
  • Each label may contain up to 63 characters. The full domain name may not exceed a total length of 253 characters. In practice, some domain registries may have shorter limits.
  • DNS names may technically consist of any character representable in an octet. However, the allowed formulation of domain names in the DNS root zone, and most other sub domains, uses a preferred format and character set. The characters allowed in a label are a subset of the ASCII character set, and includes the characters a through z, A through Z, digits 0 through 9, and the hyphen. This rule is known as the LDH rule (letters, digits, hyphen). Domain names are interpreted in case-independent manner. Labels may not start or end with a hyphen.
  • A hostname is a domain name that has at least one IP address associated. For example, the domain names http://www.example.com/ and example.com are also hostnames, whereas the com domain is not.
Internationalized domain names:

The permitted character set of the DNS prevented the representation of names and words of many languages in their native alphabets or scripts. ICANN has approved the Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) system, which maps Unicode strings into the valid DNS character set using Punycode. In 2009 ICANN approved the installation of IDN country code top-level domains. In addition, many registries of the existing TLDs have adopted IDNA.

Name servers:

The Domain Name System is maintained by a distributed database system, which uses the client-server model. The nodes of this database are the name servers. Each domain has at least one authoritative DNS server that publishes information about that domain and the name servers of any domains subordinate to it. The top of the hierarchy is served by the root nameservers, the servers to query when looking up (resolving) a top-level domain name (TLD).

Authoritative name server:

An authoritative name server is a name server that gives answers that have been configured by an original
source, for example, the domain administrator or by dynamic DNS methods, in contrast to answers that were obtained via a regular DNS query to another name server. An authoritative-only name server only returns answers to queries about domain names that have been specifically configured by the administrator.

An authoritative name server can either be a master server or a slave server. A master server is a server that stores the original (master) copies of all zone records. A slave server uses an automatic updating mechanism of the DNS protocol in communication with its master to maintain an identical copy of the master records.

Every DNS zone must be assigned a set of authoritative name servers that are installed in NS records in the parent zone.

When domain names are registered with a domain name registrar their installation at the domain registry of a top level domain requires the assignment of a primary name server and at least one secondary name server.

The requirement of multiple name servers aims to make the domain still functional even if one name server becomes inaccessible or inoperable. The designation of a primary name server is solely determined by the priority given to the domain name registrar. For this purpose generally only the fully qualified domain name of the name server is required, unless the servers are contained in the registered domain, in which case the corresponding IP address is needed as well.

Primary name servers are often master name servers, while secondary name server may be implemented as slave servers.

An authoritative server indicates its status of supplying definitive answers, deemed authoritative, by setting a software flag (a protocol structure bit), called the Authoritative Answer (AA) bit in its responses. This flag is usually reproduced prominently in the output of DNS administration query tools (such as dig) to indicate that the responding name server is an authority for the domain name in question.

Recursive and caching name server:

In principle, authoritative name servers are sufficient for the operation of the Internet. However, with only authoritative name servers operating, every DNS query must start with recursive queries at the root zone of the Domain Name System and each user system must implement resolver software capable of recursive operation.

To improve efficiency, reduce DNS traffic across the Internet, and increase performance in end-user applications, the Domain Name System supports DNS cache servers which store DNS query results for a period of time determined in the configuration (time-to-live) of the domain name record in question.

Typically, such caching DNS servers, also called DNS caches, also implement the recursive algorithm necessary to resolve a given name starting with the DNS root through to the authoritative name servers of the queried domain. With this function implemented in the name server, user applications gain efficiency in design and operation.

The combination of DNS caching and recursive functions in a name server is not mandatory, the functions can be implemented independently in servers for special purposes.
Internet service providers typically provide recursive and caching name servers for their customers. In addition, many home networking routers implement DNS caches and recursors to improve efficiency in the local network.

DNS resolvers:

The client-side of the DNS is called a DNS resolver. It is responsible for initiating and sequencing the queries that ultimately lead to a full resolution (translation) of the resource sought, e.g., translation of a domain name into an IP address.
A DNS query may be either a non-recursive query or a recursive query:
  • A non-recursive query is one in which the DNS server provides a record for a domain for which it is authoritative itself, or it provides a partial result without querying other servers.
  • A recursive query is one for which the DNS server will fully answer the query (or give an error) by querying other name servers as needed. DNS servers are not required to support recursive queries.
The resolver, or another DNS server acting recursively on behalf of the resolver, negotiates use of recursive service using bits in the query headers.

Resolving usually entails iterating through several name servers to find the needed information. However, some resolvers function simplistically and can communicate only with a single name server. These simple resolvers (called "stub resolvers") rely on a recursive name server to perform the work of finding information for them.

Security issues:

DNS was not originally designed with security in mind, and thus has a number of security issues.
One class of vulnerabilities is DNS cache poisoning, which tricks a DNS server into believing it has received authentic information when, in reality, it has not.

DNS responses are traditionally not cryptographically signed, leading to many attack possibilities; the Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC) modifies DNS to add support for cryptographically signed responses. There are various extensions to support securing zone transfer information as well.
Even with encryption, a DNS server could become compromised by a virus (or for that matter a disgruntled employee) that would cause IP addresses of that server to be redirected to a malicious address with a long TTL. This could have far-reaching impact to potentially millions of Internet users if busy DNS servers cache the bad IP data. This would require manual purging of all affected DNS caches as required by the long TTL (up to 68 years).

Some domain names can spoof other, similar-looking domain names. For example, "paypal.com" and "paypa1.com" are different names, yet users may be unable to tell the difference when the user's typeface (font) does not clearly differentiate the letter l and the numeral 1. This problem is more serious in systems that support internationalized domain names, since many character codes in ISO 10646, may appear identical on typical computer screens. This vulnerability is often exploited in phishing.[citation needed]
Techniques such as forward-confirmed reverse DNS can also be used to help validate DNS results.

Domain name registration:

The right to use a domain name is delegated by domain name registrars which are accredited by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the organization charged with overseeing the name and number systems of the Internet. In addition to ICANN, each top-level domain (TLD) is maintained and serviced technically by an administrative organization, operating a registry. A registry is responsible for maintaining the database of names registered within the TLD it administers. The registry receives registration information from each domain name registrar authorized to assign names in the corresponding TLD and publishes the information using a special service, the whois protocol.

ICANN publishes the complete list of TLD registries and domain name registrars. Registrant information associated with domain names is maintained in an online database accessible with the WHOIS service. For most of the more than 240 country code top-level domains (ccTLDs), the domain registries maintain the WHOIS (Registrant, name servers, expiration dates, etc.) information. For instance, DENIC, Germany NIC, holds the DE domain data. Since about 2001, most gTLD registries have adopted this so-called thick registry approach, i.e. keeping the WHOIS data in central registries instead of registrar databases.

For COM and NET domain names, a thin registry model is used: the domain registry (e.g. VeriSign) holds basic WHOIS (registrar and name servers, etc.) data. One can find the detailed WHOIS (registrant, name servers, expiry dates, etc.) at the registrars.

Some domain name registries, often called network information centers (NIC), also function as registrars to end-users. The major generic top-level domain registries, such as for the COM, NET, ORG, INFO domains, use a registry-registrar model consisting of many domain name registrars. In this method of management, the registry only manages the domain name database and the relationship with the registrars. The registrants (users of a domain name) are customers of the registrar, in some cases through additional layers of resellers.


Blood Type - Blood Group

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens that stem from one allele (or very closely linked genes), collectively form a blood group system. Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 30 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT).

Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a different blood type from their own, and the mother can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn, an illness of low fetal blood counts that ranges from mild to severe.

Blood group systems:

A complete blood type would describe a full set of 30 substances on the surface of RBCs, and an individual's blood type is one of the many possible combinations of blood-group antigens. Across the 30 blood groups, over 600 different blood-group antigens have been found, but many of these are very rare or are mainly found in certain ethnic groups.

Almost always, an individual has the same blood group for life, but very rarely an individual's blood type changes through addition or suppression of an antigen in infection, malignancy, or autoimmune disease. An example of this rare phenomenon is the case of Demi-Lee Brennan, an Australian citizen, whose blood group changed after a liver transplant. Another more common cause in blood-type change is a bone marrow transplant. Bone-marrow transplants are performed for many leukemias and lymphomas, among other diseases. If a person receives bone marrow from someone who is a different ABO type (e.g., a type A patient receives a type O bone marrow), the patient's blood type will eventually convert to the donor's type.

Some blood types are associated with inheritance of other diseases; for example, the Kell antigen is sometimes associated with McLeod syndrome. Certain blood types may affect susceptibility to infections, an example being the resistance to specific malaria species seen in individuals lacking the Duffy antigen. The
Duffy antigen, presumably as a result of natural selection, is less common in ethnic groups from areas with a high incidence of malaria.

ABO blood group system:

The ABO system is the most important blood-group system in human-blood transfusion. The associated anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies are usually Immunoglobulin M, abbreviated IgM, antibodies. ABO IgM antibodies are produced in the first years of life by sensitization to environmental substances such as food, bacteria, and viruses. The O in ABO is often called 0 (zero, or null) in other languages.

Rh blood group system:

The Rh system is the second most significant blood-group system in human-blood transfusion with currently 50 antigens. The most significant Rh antigen is the D antigen because it is the most likely to provoke an immune system response of the five main Rh antigens. It is common for D-negative individuals not to have any anti-D IgG or IgM antibodies, because anti-D antibodies are not usually produced by sensitization against environmental substances. However, D-negative individuals can produce IgG anti-D antibodies following a sensitizing event: possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs. Rh disease can develop in these cases. Rh negative blood types are much less in proportion of Asian populations (0.3%) than they are in White (15%).

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN):

A pregnant woman can make IgG blood group antibodies if her fetus has a blood group antigen that she does not have. This can happen if some of the fetus' blood cells pass into the mother's blood circulation (e.g. a small fetomaternal hemorrhage at the time of childbirth or obstetric intervention), or sometimes after a therapeutic blood transfusion. This can cause Rh disease or other forms of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the current pregnancy and/or subsequent pregnancies. If a pregnant woman is known to have anti-D antibodies, the Rh blood type of a fetus can be tested by analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma to assess the risk to the fetus of Rh disease. One of the major advances of twentieth century medicine was to prevent this disease by stopping the formation of Anti-D antibodies by D negative mothers with an injectable medication called Rho(D) immune globulin. Antibodies associated with some blood groups can cause severe HDN, others can only cause mild HDN and others are not known to cause HDN.

Red blood cell compatibility:

Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, and their blood serum does not contain any antibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can receive blood from any group (with AB being preferable), but can donate blood only to another type AB individual.
Blood group A individuals have the A antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the B antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type A or AB.
Blood group B individuals have the B antigen on the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies against the A antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood only from individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals with type B or AB.
Blood group O (or blood group zero in some countries) individuals do not have either A or B antigens on the surface of their RBCs, but their blood serum contains IgM anti-A antibodies and anti-B antibodies against the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only from a group O individual, but can donate blood to individuals of any ABO blood group (i.e. A, B, O or AB). If anyone needs a blood transfusion in an extremely dire emergency, and if the time taken to process the recipient's blood would cause a detrimental delay, O Negative blood can be issued.

Tere Mast Mast Do Nain - Dabangg




Tere Mast Mast Do Nain
Movie: Dabangg
starring Salman Khan and Sonakshi Sinha..
Awesome Song!

Kaisa Yeh Junoon - Rahat Fateh Ali Khan




Song: Kaisa Yeh Junoon
Singer: Rahat Fateh Ali Khan

Tere Bina - Rahat Fateh Ali Khan




Tere Bina
Singer: Rahat Fateh Ali Khan
Album: Charkha
It's really a beautiful song which really attracts.
Enjoy!

Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam - Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam



Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam

Movie: Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam

Cast: Aishwarya Rai, Salman Khan, Ajay Devgan

Tum Kaisi Muhabbat Karte Ho - Waqar Ali



Tum Kaisi Muhabbat Karte Ho
by Waqar Ali
A superb song well sung well written...with cool pics slides...

Beautiful as You - Jim Brickman




but i've never seen never seen anything as beautiful as YOU.
lovely song by Jim Brickman

Baby Hiccups and Baby Laugh



A baby laughs at another baby's hiccups. Really Sweet! :)

Baby Twins - Lion Sleeps Tonight




This video depicts the first 6 months life journey of baby twins. How Cute!

Student Loans in Sweden

Student loans in Sweden are administered by the Swedish National Board of Student Aid, a Swedish government agency. Students living with their parents often only take the student grant, while other students tend to take both the student grant and the student loan. A full-time student gets SEK 2,492 (about $370) a month in student grant money, and can borrow up to SEK 4,764 (about $700) a month, which equals a total of SEK 7,259 (about $1,070). During the summer months, the student gets no grants or loans unless taking a summer course. Thus a full-time student gets SEK 24,920 (about $3,700) a year in student grants, and can borrow up to SEK 47,640 (about $7,000) a year, which gives a total of SEK 72,590 (about $10,700). The loans and grants are normally approved for a maximum of twelve semesters, or 240 weeks.

No income tax is paid on student grants and student loans. However, the grant and loan is reduced if a certain limit of additional incomes is crossed. As of autumn 2009, the upper limit of additional incomes for a student with a full time loan and grant was SEK 45,000 (about $ 6,400).

In Sweden, university studies are free of charge.

What do we mean by Student Loans Refinancing?

Student loans refinancing is an aid needed by students who have some problems paying their Student loan on time. A student may consider refinancing student loans when he/she cannot handles payments with multiple loans. Multiple loans can be described as multiple interest rates.
By refinancing student loans, students may be able to consolidate their multiple loan payments into one low interest rate. That is why, student may save thousands of dollar by refinancing their loans.

Keep in your mind that many lenders will ask for credit report when someone applying for student loans refinancing. A student will be able to qualify if he/she has a good and valid credit report. Student can submit the application through banks or credit lenders.

What is Credit Card Fraud?

Credit card fraud is a wide-ranging term for theft and fraud committed using a credit card or any similar payment mechanism as a fraudulent source of funds in a transaction. The purpose may be to obtain goods without paying, or to obtain unauthorized funds from an account. Credit card fraud is also an adjunct to identity theft. According to the Federal Trade Commission, while identity theft had been holding steady for the last few years, it saw a 21 percent increase in 2008. However, credit card fraud, that crime which most people associate with ID theft, decreased as a percentage of all ID theft complaints for the sixth year in a row.

The cost of card fraud in 2006 were 7 cents per 100 dollars worth of transactions (7 basis points). Due to the high volume of transactions this translates to billions of dollars. In 2006, fraud in the United Kingdom alone was estimated at £535 million, or US$750–830 million at prevailing 2006 exchange rates.
The fraud begins with either the theft of the physical card or the compromise of data associated with the account, including the card account number or other information that would routinely and necessarily be available to a merchant during a legitimate transaction. The compromise can occur by many common routes and can usually be conducted without tipping off the card holder, the merchant or the issuer, at least until the account is ultimately used for fraud. A simple example is that of a store clerk copying sales receipts for later use. The rapid growth of credit card use on the Internet has made database security lapses particularly costly; in some cases, millions of accounts have been compromised.

Stolen cards can be reported quickly by cardholders, but a compromised account can be hoarded by a thief for weeks or months before any fraudulent use, making it difficult to identify the source of the compromise. The cardholder may not discover fraudulent use until receiving a billing statement, which may be delivered infrequently.

When a credit card is lost or stolen, it remains usable until the holder notifies the issuer that the card is lost. Most issuers have free 24-hour telephone numbers to encourage prompt reporting. Still, it is possible for a thief to make unauthorized purchases on a card until it is canceled. Without other security measures, a thief could potentially purchase thousands of dollars in merchandise or services before the cardholder or the card issuer realize that the card is in the wrong hands.

The only common security measure on all cards is a signature panel, but signatures are relatively easy to forge. Some merchants will demand to see a picture ID, such as a driver's license, to verify the identity of the purchaser, and some credit cards include the holder's picture on the card itself. However, the card holder has a right to refuse to show additional verification, and asking for such verification is usually a violation of the merchant's agreement with the credit card companies. Self-serve payment systems (gas stations, kiosks, etc.) are common targets for stolen cards, as there is no way to verify the card holder's identity. A common countermeasure is to require the user to key in some identifying information, such as the user's ZIP or postal code. This method may deter casual theft of a card found alone, but if the card holder's wallet is stolen, it may be trivial for the thief to deduce the information by looking at other items in the wallet. For instance, a U.S. driver license commonly has the holder's home address and ZIP code printed on it.

Card issuers have several countermeasures, including sophisticated software that can, before a transaction is authorized, estimate the probability of fraud. For example, a large transaction occurring a great distance from the cardholder's home might seem suspicious. The merchant may be instructed to call the card issuer for verification, or to decline the transaction, or even to hold the card and refuse to return it to the customer. The customer must contact the issuer and prove who they are to get their card back (if it is not fraud and they are actually buying a product).

Famous credit fraud attacks:

Between July 2005 and mid-January 2007, a breach of systems at TJX Companies exposed data from more than 45.6 million credit cards. Albert Gonzalez is accused of being the ringleader of the group responsible for the thefts.

In August 2009 Gonzalez was also indicted for the biggest known credit card theft to date — information from more than 130 million credit and debit cards was stolen at Heartland Payment Systems, retailers 7-Eleven and Hannaford Brothers, and two unidentified companies.

Mortgage: Variant Terminology and Legal Aspects

A mortgage is a security interest in real property held by a lender as a security for a debt, usually a loan of money. While a mortgage in itself is not a debt, it is the lender's security for a debt. It is a transfer of an interest in land (or the equivalent) from the owner to the mortgage lender, on the condition that this interest will be returned to the owner when the terms of the mortgage have been satisfied or performed. In other words, the mortgage is a security for the loan that the lender makes to the borrower.

The word is a Law French term meaning "dead pledge," apparently meaning that the pledge ends (dies) either when the obligation is fulfilled or the property is taken through foreclosure.

In most jurisdictions mortgages are strongly associated with loans secured on real estate rather than on other property (such as ships) and in some jurisdictions only land may be mortgaged. A mortgage is the standard method by which individuals and businesses can purchase real estate without the need to pay the full value immediately from their own resources.

Participants and Variant Terminology:
Legal systems in different countries, while having some concepts in common, employ different terminology.
However, in general, a mortgage of property involves the following parties.

Mortgage lender: A mortgage lender is an investor that lends money secured by a mortgage on real estate. In today's world, most lenders sell the loans they write on the secondary mortgage market. When they sell the mortgage, they earn revenue called Service Release Premium. Typically, the purpose of the loan is for the borrower to purchase that same real estate. The borrower, known as the mortgagor, gives the mortgage to the lender, known as the mortgagee. As the mortgagee, the lender has the right to sell the property to pay off the loan if the borrower fails to pay.

The mortgage runs with the land, so even if the borrower transfers the property to someone else, the mortgagee still has the right to sell it if the borrower fails to pay off the loan.

So that a buyer cannot unwittingly buy property subject to a mortgage, mortgages are registered or recorded against the title with a government office, as a public record. The borrower has the right to have the mortgage discharged from the title once the debt is paid.

Borrower: A mortgagor is the borrower in a mortgage—they owe the obligation secured by the mortgage. Generally, the debtor must meet the conditions of the underlying loan or other obligation and the conditions of the mortgage. Otherwise, the debtor usually runs the risk of foreclosure of the mortgage by the creditor to recover the debt. Typically the debtors will be the individual home-owners, landlords or businesses who are purchasing their property by way of a loan.

Other participants: Because of the complicated legal exchange, or conveyance, of the property, one or both of the main participants are likely to require legal representation. The terminology varies with legal jurisdiction; see lawyer, solicitor and conveyancer.

Because of the complex nature of many markets the debtor may approach a mortgage broker or financial adviser to help him or her source an appropriate creditor, typically by finding the most competitive loan.
The debt is, in civil law jurisdictions, referred to as hypothecation, which may make use of the services of a hypothecary to assist in the hypothecation.

Legal aspects:
Mortgages may be legal or equitable. Furthermore, a mortgage may take one of a number of different legal structures, the availability of which will depend on the jurisdiction under which the mortgage is made. Common law jurisdictions have evolved two main forms of mortgage: the mortgage by demise and the mortgage by legal charge.

Mortgage by demise: In a mortgage by demise, the mortgagee (the lender) becomes the owner of the mortgaged property until the loan is repaid or other mortgage obligation fulfilled in full, a process known as "redemption". This kind of mortgage takes the form of a conveyance of the property to the creditor, with a condition that the property will be returned on redemption.

Mortgages by demise were the original form of mortgage, and continue to be used in many jurisdictions, and in a small minority of states in the United States. Many other common law jurisdictions have either abolished or minimised the use of the mortgage by demise. For example, in England and Wales this type of mortgage is no longer available in relation to registered interests in land, by virtue of section 23 of the Land Registration Act 2002 (though it continues to be available for unregistered interests).

Mortgage by legal charge: In a mortgage by legal charge or technically "a charge by deed expressed to be by way of legal mortgage", the debtor remains the legal owner of the property, but the creditor gains sufficient rights over it to enable them to enforce their security, such as a right to take possession of the property or sell it.

To protect the lender, a mortgage by legal charge is usually recorded in a public register. Since mortgage debt is often the largest debt owed by the debtor, banks and other mortgage lenders run title searches of the real estate property to make certain that there are no mortgages already registered on the debtor's property which might have higher priority. Tax liens, in some cases, will come ahead of mortgages. For this reason, if a borrower has delinquent property taxes, the bank will often pay them to prevent the lienholder from foreclosing and wiping out the mortgage.

This type of mortgage is most common in the United States and, since the Law of Property Act 1925, it has been the usual form of mortgage in England and Wales (it is now the only form for registered interests in land – see above).

In Scotland, the mortgage by legal charge is also known as Standard Security.

In Pakistan, the mortgage by legal charge is most common way used by banks to secure the financing. It is also known as registered mortgage. After registration of legal charge, the bank's lien is recorded in the land register stating that the property is under mortgage and cannot be sold without obtaining an NOC (No Objection Certificate) from the bank.

Equitable mortgage: Equitable mortgages don't fit the criteria for a legal mortgage, but are considered mortgages under equity (in the interests of justice) because money was lent and security was promised. This could arise because of procedural or paperwork issues. Based on this definition, there are numerous situations which could lead to an equitable mortgage. As of 1961, English law required the consent of the court before the equitable mortgagee was allowed to sell. When the borrower deposits a title deed with the lender, it has historically created an equitable mortgage in England, but the creation of an equitable mortgage by such a process has been less certain in the United States.

In an equitable mortgage the lender is secured by taking possession of all the original title documents of the property and by borrower's signing a Memorandum of Deposit of Title Deed (MODTD). This document is an undertaking by the borrower that he/she has deposited the title documents with the bank with his own wish and will, in order to secure the financing obtained from the bank..
Foreclosure and non-recourse lending:
In most jurisdictions, a lender may foreclose on the mortgaged property if certain conditions – principally, non-payment of the mortgage loan – apply. Subject to local legal requirements, the property may then be sold. Any amounts received from the sale (net of costs) are applied to the original debt.
In some jurisdictions mainly in the United States, mortgage loans are non-recourse loans: if the funds recouped from sale of the mortgaged property are insufficient to cover the outstanding debt, the lender may not have recourse to the borrower after foreclosure. In other jurisdictions, the borrower remains responsible for any remaining debt, through a deficiency judgment. In some jurisdictions, first mortgages are non-recourse loans, but second and subsequent ones are recourse loans.

Specific procedures for foreclosure and sale of the mortgaged property almost always apply, and may be tightly regulated by the relevant government. In some jurisdictions, foreclosure and sale can occur quite rapidly, while in others, foreclosure may take many months or even years. In many countries, the ability of lenders to foreclose is extremely limited, and mortgage market development has been notably slower.

Refinance / Refinancing: Reasons and Risks

 A method of paying a debt by borrowing additional money thus creating a second debt in order to pay the first. The most common consumer refinancing is for a home mortgage.

A loan (debt) can be refinanced for various reasons:

1.To take advantage of a better interest rate (which will result in either a reduced monthly payment or a reduced term)

2.To consolidate other debt(s) into one loan (this will result in a longer term)
3.To reduce the monthly repayment amount (this will result in a longer term)
4.To reduce or alter risk (e.g. switching from a variable-rate to a fixed-rate loan)
5.To free up cash (this will result in a longer term)

In the context of personal (as opposed to corporate) finance, refinancing multiple debts makes management of the debt easier. If high-interest debt, such as credit card debt, is consolidated into the home mortgage, the borrower is able to pay off the remaining debt at mortgage rates over a longer period.
Most fixed-term loans have penalty clauses ("call provisions") that are triggered by an early repayment of the loan, in part or in full, as well as "closing" fees. There will also be transaction fees on the refinancing. These fees must be calculated before embarking on a loan refinancing, as they can wipe out any savings generated through refinancing.

If the refinanced loan has lower monthly repayments or consolidates other debts for the same repayment, it will result in a larger total interest cost over the life of the loan, and will result in the borrower remaining in debt for many more years. Calculating the up-front, ongoing, and potentially variable costs of refinancing is an important part of the decision on whether or not to refinance.

In banking and finance, refinancing risk is the possibility that a borrower cannot refinance by borrowing to repay existing debt. Many types of commercial lending incorporate balloon payments at the point of final maturity; often, the intention or assumption is that the borrower will take out a new loan to pay the existing lenders.

A borrower that cannot refinance their existing debt and does not have sufficient funds on hand to pay their lenders may have a liquidity problem. The borrower may be considered technically insolvent: even though their assets are greater than their liabilities, they cannot raise the liquid funds to pay their creditors. Insolvency may lead to bankruptcy, even when the borrower has a positive net worth.

In order to repay the debt at maturity, the borrower that cannot refinance may be forced into a fire sale of assets at a low price, including the borrower's own home and productive assets such as factories and plants.
Most large corporations and banks face this risk to some degree, as they may constantly borrow and repay loans. Refinancing risk increases in periods of rising interest rates, when the borrower may not have sufficient income to afford the interest rate on a new loan.

Most commercial banks provide long term loans, and fund this operation by taking shorter term deposits.In general, refinancing risk is only considered to be substantial for banks in cases of financial crisis, when borrowing funds, such as inter-bank deposits, may be extremely difficult.